My research publications and recent presentations are listed below, organized into Cybermeditation, Meditation and Presence | Individual and Social Impacts of Interactive Technology | Playstyles and Player Types| and Gender and Gaming.


Heeter, C. (2023) An Inside Look at Meditation: Experiences for healing, support, and transformation. ymt Press, San Francisco.

Heeter, C.; Allbritton, M.; Lehto, R.; Miller, P.; McDaniel, P.; Paletta, M, (2021) Feasibility, Acceptability, and Outcomes of a Yoga-Based Meditation Intervention for Hospice Professionals to Combat Burnout. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health18, 2515.

Heeter, C., Allbritton, M., & Bossart, C. (2019). Beyond Scientific Mechanisms: Subjective Perceptions with Viniyoga Meditation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2200.

Allbritton M. & Heeter C. Meditation as an Intervention for Health: A Framework for Understanding Meditation ResearchOBM Integrative and Complementary Medicine  2018;3(4):025; doi:10.21926/obm.icm.1804025.

Heeter, C., Lehto, R.H. (July 31, 2018). Meditation App Benefits Hospice and Palliative Care Clinicians. Oncology Nursing News.

Heeter, C., Lehto, R.H. (May 24, 2018). Benefits of Yoga and Meditation for Patients with Cancer. Oncology Nursing News.

Lehto, R., Heeter, C., Allbritton, M., & Wiseman, M. (2018). Hospice and Palliative Care Provider Experiences With Meditation Using Mobile Applications. Oncology Nursing Forum 45(3):380-388. DOI: 10.1188/18.ONF.380-388

Heeter, C., Lehto, R.H., Allbritton, M., Day, T., Wiseman, M  (August, 2017). Effects of a Technology-Assisted Meditation Program on Healthcare Providers’ Interoceptive Awareness, Compassion Fatigue, and Burnout.  Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, Volume 19, No 4.

Heeter, C. (2016). A Meditation on Meditation and Embodied Presence. Presence 25:2, 175-183.

Heeter, C., Allbritton,  M., Lehto,  R., Day. T (September 19, 2016). “Effects of a 6-week cybermeditation program for hospice professionals on meditation engagement, interoceptive awareness, and compassion fatigue,” Poster presented at the Symposium on Yoga Research, Stockbridge, MA, September 19, 2016. Appeared in a supplemental issue of the International Journal of Yoga Therapy.

Heeter, C., Lehto,  R., Allbritton,  M.,  Day, T, Wiseman, M (October 19, 2016). “6-Week Cybermeditation App Program Introduces Hospice and Palliative Care Professionals to Meditation and Improves Professional Quality of Life,” Poster to be presented at the18th International Psycho Oncology Society Congress, 17th – 21st October 2016 in Dublin, Ireland.

Heeter, C.,  Allbritton, M. (2015). Being There: Implications of Neuroscience and Meditation for Self-Presence in Virtual Worlds. Journal For Virtual Worlds Research, 8(2).

Heeter, C.,  Allbritton, M. (2015). Playing with Presence: How meditation can increase the experience of embodied presence in a virtual world. In proceedings of Foundations of Digital Games, Asilomar, CA.

Heeter, C. (2014). Meditation as Entertainment: The inverse of serious games. In proceedings of Meaningful Play, East Lansing, MI.

Heeter, C. “Reflections on Real Presence by a Virtual Person.” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, August, 2003.

“TeleWindows: Changing the Social Fabric of Life for Homebound Elderly,” National Council on Aging Annual Conferences, 1999 and 2000,

“Interactivity in the Context of Designed Experiences,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, Volume 1, Number 1, Fall 2000.

“Aspects of Presence in Telerelating,” Journal of Cyberpsychology and Behavior, fall, 1999.

Heeter, Carrie, “Real hands, virtual worlds,” Proceedings of the Virtual Realities Systems Convention, fall, 1993.

Heeter, Carrie, “The thin line between Hypermedia and Virtual Reality,” Educational Technology Review, Winter, 1993.

Heeter, Carrie, “Being there: The subjective experience of presence,” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, MIT Press, fall, 1992.

Heeter, Carrie,  Implications of interactivity for communication research.  In Jerry Salvaggio & Jennings Bryant (Eds.) Media Use in the Information Age:  Emerging Patterns of Adoption and Consumer Use, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989.


Lee, Y-H., and Heeter, C. 2017. The effects of cognitive capacity and gaming expertise on attention and comprehension. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.

Ellison, N. B., Wohn, D. Y., & Heeter, C. (in press).  A social capital perspective on games and higher education. In B. Tierney, Z. Corwin, G. Ragusa, & T. Fullerton (Eds). Postsecondary play: The role of games and social media in higher education. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins Press.

Battle, J., Olson, L., and  Heeter, C. (2012).  Green League: An innovative tool for employee learning and engagement.  Presented at the Behavior, Energy, and Climate Conference, Sacramento, November.

Dodds, S., Heeter, C., and Simon, A. (2012). Great Neighborhoods: Giving power to every voice and transforming communities through civic gaming. Presented at the international Meaningful Play conference, East Lansing, MI, October.

Heeter, C. and Starr, B. (2012).  DNA Roulette: Understanding genetics & genetic testing through gaming. Presented at Games for Health, Boston, June.

Heeter, Carrie, Chandan (Dan) Sarkar, Becky Palmer-Scott and Shasha Zhang (2012). “Engineering Sociability: Friendship Drive, Visibility, and Social Connection in Anonymous Co-Located Local Wi-Fi Multiplayer Online Gaming.” IJGCMS 4.2: 1-18.

Lee, M. and Heeter, C. (2012).  What do you mean by believable characters? The effect of character rating and hostility on the perception of character believability. Journal of Gaming and Virtual Worlds, 4:1.

Heeter, C. and Guenther, B. (2011).  “From Classmates to Class Community: Assigned and Spontaneous Social Networking,” presented at Emerging Technologies for Online Learning International Symposium, San Jose, July, 2011.

Scott, B., Zhang, S., Heeter, C., Sarkar, C. (2010).  Tabletop gaming among strangers in public places: Forecasting who will play and why. Meaningful Play conference proceedings, East Lansing:  October.

Lee, M and Heeter, C. (2010).  What Do You Mean by Believable Characters? : The Effect of the Character Newness, Rating and Evilness on the Perception of the Character Believability.  Meaningful Play conference proceedings, East Lansing:  October.

Lee, M., Heeter, C., LaRose, R. (2010). A modern Cinderella story: a comparison of viewer responses to interactive vs. linear narrative in solitary and co-viewing settings.  New Media and Society, February.

Heeter, C. and Winn, B. (2009).  Meaningful Play.  International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations<, Vol 1. No. 3, July-September.

Heeter, C., Maniar, A., and Winn, B.  (2009). Making Sense of Brain Games: A scientific analysis of game design in the brain fitness market. Game Developer’s Conference, San Francisco.

Winn, B. and Heeter, C.  (2006/2007) “Resolving Conflicts in Educational Game Design through Playtesting.”   Innovate 3 (2).

Lownds, N. and Heeter, C. (2006).  Connecting Beyond the Field Trip: The On-line Wonder Wall. Proceedings of Museums and the Web, New Mexico.

Min, H. and Heeter, C. (2006). Backyard Animal Travel Adventure (online computer game for before and after science field trips) exhibited at Museums and the Web, New Mexico.

Heeter, C. and Winn, B.  Using player research to mediate battles between pedagogy, learning content, and fun.  Serious Games Summit, Game Developers Conference, San Jose, March 2006.

Heeter, C. and Lownds, N. “Wonderwalls: Playful Peer to Expert and Peer to Peer Collaborative Learning Spaces,”  Proceedings of the SIGGRAPH conference, Los Angeles, August, 2005.

Lee, Sanyeob, Heeter, C., and LaRose, L. “Viewer responses to interactive narrative: A comparision of interactive versus linear viewership in alone and group settings.” Presented at the International Communication Association conference, New York, June 2005.

Lounds, N., Heeter, C., and Guenther, B.  “Customizing the Learner Experience,” Angel Users Conference, East Lansing, June, 2004.

Heeter, C. and Chen, J., “The Colors of eCommerce”, paper delivered at the Electronic eCommerce conference, East Lansing, September, 2001.

“Growing a Web Garden”, Keynote Speech delivered to the National Youth Garden Symposium, July, 2001.

“Technology-enhanced Learning,” Proceedings of the Internet2 Sociotechnical Summit, 1999.

“Integrating Technology into the Michigan 4-H Children’s Garden,” Pennsylvania, Gardens and Education Conference, November, 1998 (with Dr. Norm Lownds, MSU Children’s Garden)

“Dreamweaving a Virtual University,” San Francisco, Macromedia Users Conference, May, 1998

Heeter, Carrie, “Consumer research on commercial VR,” in Communication in the Age of Virtual Reality<, Frank Biocca and Mark Levy, Eds., 1995.

Heeter, Carrie, “User reactions to low cost head mounted displays,” Proceedings of the Meckler Virtual Reality Convention, San Jose, California, May, 1995.

Heeter, Carrie, “CD-ROM versus World Wide Web,” Visual Proceedings of the annual SIGGRAPH 1995 Convention, San Jose, California, July-August 1995.

Heeter, Carrie, “Why play (VR) games?,” Virtual Reality Special Report of AI Expert, winter, 1994.

Heeter, Carrie, Yoon, Kak. and Sampson, James, “Future zap: Next generation smart remotes,” in Remote Control, edited by James Walker, 1993.

Heeter, Carrie, “BattleTech masters: Emergence of the first U.S. virtual reality subculture,” Multimedia Review, winter, 1993.

Heeter, Carrie, “Dilemmas and delights of QuickTime,” Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, fall, 1992.

Heeter, Carrie, “BattleTech: Who are the players?” invited sidebar for IEEE Computer Graphics &amp; Applications, March, 1992.

Heeter, Carrie, and Gomes, Pericles, “It’s time for hypermedia to move to talking pictures,” Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, winter, 1992.

Heeter, Carrie, and Russell, Randy “Choosing a platform,” Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, fall, 1991.

Heeter, Carrie, “Click on a ClickOn to ClickOn MSU: Exploring animated interactivity,” Tomorrow’s Realities Gallery Catalog, SIGGRAPH, August,1991.

Heeter, Carrie, “The look and feel of direct manipulation,” Journal of Hypermedia and Multimedia Studies, summer, 1991.

Dickson, Patrick, Heeter, Carrie, , Rosenberg, Mark, Gomes, Pericles and Artzi, Itzik, Exploratory multimedia environments, in Proceedings of the 1990 NATO Advanced Studies Institute, 1991.

Heeter, Carrie, and Greenberg, Bradley,  Cableviewing, Ablex Press, 1988.

Heeter, Carrie., Brown, Natalie, Soffin, Stan, Salwen, Mike, and Stanley, Cynthia. “Agenda-setting impacts of electronic text news,” Journalism Quarterly, summer, 1989.

Atkin, David, Heeter, Carrie, and Baldwin, Thomas,  “Parental mediation of children’s TV viewing:  A comparison of home viewing environments,” Journalism Quarterly, fall, 1989.

Heeter, Carrie, “Classifying mediated communication systems.” In James Anderson (Ed.) Communication Yearbook, Volume 12, Sage, 1988.

Fico, Fred, Heeter, Carrie, Soffin, Stan, and Stanley, Cynthia.  “New wave gatekeeping: Applying the index attributes of electronic text to print,” Communication Research, 1988.

Heeter, Carrie, Atwater, Tony, Baldwin, Thomas and Stanley, Cynthia. “Videotex: Creating and examining experienced users,” Telematics and Informatics, 1987.

Greenberg, Bradley  and Heeter, Carrie,  “Children and VCRs:  The picture at 40% penetration,” American  Behavioral Scientist, 1987.

Atwater, Tony, Heeter, Carrie, and Brown, Natalie,  “First exposures to VIEWTRON:   Foreshadowing the electronic publishing age,”  Journalism Quarterly, Winter, 1986.

Heeter, Carrie,  “Program selection with abundance of choice:  A process model,”  Human Communication Research, September, 1985.

Heeter, Carrie, and Greenberg, Bradley, “Profiling the zappers,” >Journal of  Advertising Research, Spring, 1985.

Heeter, Carrie, and Greenberg, Bradley, “Cable and Program Choice.”  In Dolf Zillmann  (Ed.) Selective Exposure to Communication, 1985.


Lee, Y., Heeter, C., Magerko. B., and Medler, B.  (2013). Feeling right about how you play: the effects of regulatory fit in games for learning. Journal of Games and Culture.

Heeter, C., Lee, Y., Medler, B., and Magerko, B. (2013).  “Conceptually Meaningful Metrics:  Inferring optimal challenge and mindset from gameplay.” In Seif El-Nasr, M., Drachen, A., and Conassa, A., Eds., Game Analytics: Maximizing the value of player data.

Heeter, C., Lee, Y., Magerko, B., Cole, C., and Medler, B. (2012).  Regulatory Focus and Serious Games: A Quasi-Experimental Study. Poster presented at the Society for the Study of Motivation ( in affiliation with the Annual Convention of the Association for Psychological Science (APS), Chicago.

Lee, Y., Heeter, C., Magerko, B., and Medler, B. (2012).  “Gaming Mindsets: Implicit Theories in Serious Game Learning,” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networks,15(4): 190-194.

Moser, J., Schroeder, H., Heeter, C., Lee, Y. (2011). “Mind your errors: Evidence for a neural mechanism linking growth mindset to adaptive post-error adjustments,” Psychological Science.

Heeter, C., Lee, Y., Magerko, B., and Medler, B. (2011). “Impacts of Forced Serious Game Play on Vulnerable Subgroups,” International Journal of Games and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 3:3.

Heeter, C., Lee, Y., Medler, B., and Magerko, B. (2011).  “Beyond Player Types:  Gaming Achievement Goal,” SIGGRAPH conference proceedings, Vancouver, Canada: August.

Roberts, D., Heeter, C., Marr, M., Yee, N.  (2011). Panel on User Modeling.   IEEE Conference on AI for Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE), Palo Alto, CA: October.

Schroeder, Hans, Moser, Jason, Heeter, C. and Lee, Y.  (2011). Mind Your Errors: Neural Evidence Linking Growth Mindset to Remedial Action. Poster at American Psychological Science annual convention.

Magerko, B., Heeter, C., and Medler, B. (2009). Different Strokes for Different Folks: Tapping into the hidden potential of serious games, in Van Eck, Rick, Ed., Gaming and Cognition, IGI Global.

Heeter, C., Magerko, B., Medler, B., and Fitzgerald, J. (2009).  Game Design and the Challenge-Avoiding, Self-Validator Player Type.  International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, Vol 1, No. 3, July-September.

Heeter, C., Winn, B., Winn, J., and Bozoki, A. (2008). “The Challenge of Challenge: Avoiding and Embracing Difficulty in a Memory Game,” proceedings of the Meaningful Play conference, East Lansing, October.

Heeter, C. (2008) “Playstyles and Learning Styles,” in Ferdig, Rick, ed., Handbook of Research on Effective Electronic Gaming in Education, IGI Global.


Heeter, C. (in press).  Femininity.  In Perron, B. and Wolf, M. (Eds) The Routledge Companion to Video Game Studies.

Heeter, C. (2009).  investiGaming: A curated bibliography of research on gender and gaming  for academic researchers, game design educators, and game industry professionals(funded by the National Science Foundation).

Winn, J., &amp; Heeter, C. (2009) Gaming, gender, and time: Who makes time to play? Sex Roles, 61, 1-13.

Heeter, C., Egidio, R., Mishra, P., Winn, B. and Winn, J. (2009).  Alien Games: Do girls prefer games designed by girls? Games and Culture, Vol. 4, No. 1, January.

Heeter, C. (2008). “Gender Studies and Feminism,” in Perron, B. and Wolf, M., eds., THE VIDEO GAME THEORY READER 2, Routledge, Inc.

Heeter, C., Winn, B. (2008) “Implications of Gender, Player Type and Learning Strategies for the Design of Games for Learning,”in Beyond Barbie to Mortal Combat: New perspectives on gender and gaming. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Kafai, Y., Heeter, C., Denner, J.  and Sun, J.  Eds. (2008). Beyond Barbie to Mortal Combat: New perspectives on gender and gaming. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Heeter, C., Winn, B., and Greene, D.  “Theories Meet Realities: Designing a learning game for girls,” conference proceedings of the DUX 2005 Conference on Designing for User eXperience, San Francisco, November 3-5, 2005.

Heeter, C. and Winn, B.  “Gender, Playstyle, and Learning: Constructing In-Game Measures of Playstyle,” FuturePlay Proceedings, East Lansing, October 2005.

Capterton, I.,  Heeter, C., Steinkuehler, C., and Sun, J.  Gender and Diversity Panel.  The Education Arcade: The Future of Videogames in Education, Los Angeles, May, 2005.

Heeter, C., Egidio, R., Mishra, P., and Graves-Wolf, L.  “Do Girls Prefer Games Designed by Girls?” Presented at the International Communication Association conference, New York, June 2005.

Punya Mishra, Yi Chen, Leigh Graves Wolf, Danah Henriksen, Nicholas Joel Sheltrown, Michael Phillips, Peter Osborne, Kym Buchanan, Chun Lai, Steven Tuckey, Carrie Heeter.  Gender Impacts on Game Design Process and Products: An in depth analysis of middle school children’s conceptualizations of a learning game.  International DiGRA Conference (Digital Games Research Association), Vancouver, June 2005.

Heeter, C., “Game Baby,” competitive concept proposal for a mobile phone-based information and game service for first time parents, presented at the Serious Games Summit, San Francisco, March 2005.

Heeter, C., Chu, K., Egidio, R., Mishra, P., and Graves-Wolf, L. “Do Girls Prefer Games Designed by Girls?” presented at the International Communication Association conference, New York, June 2005.

Heeter, C. “Commercial Educational Software: Girls’ Perspectives on What Makes a Great Game” The Education Arcade at E3 conference, Los Angeles, May, 2004.

Heeter, C., Egidio, R., and Winn, B. “Girls and Games: Gender Observations from Child-Envisioned Learning Games” Computer Games Technology Conference, Toronto, April, 2004.

Heeter, C., Chu, K., Maniar, A., Mishra, P., and Egidio, R. Comparing 14 Forms of Fun (and Learning and Gender Issues) In Commercial Versus Educational Space Exploration Digital Games, International Conference on Digital Games Research conference, Netherlands, November, 2003.

Heeter, C. Girls as Space Game Designers: Extreme baseline research, Designing for User Experience conference, San Francisco, June, 2003.